Bread crust should be evenly colored, brownish, its thickness – less than 4 mm. The upper crust is no delamination from the crumb. Crumb fresh bread baked good should not be sticky and moist to touch. Fossa, which is formed by pressing a finger to quickly level off. The taste of rye bread moderately sour, wheat – specific. The smell of bread should be fragrant and pleasant.
Organoleptic changes properties of grain may be due to several reasons. For example, bread can take on strange smell (the smell of kerosene, gasoline), if it is kept close to the substances with strongly pronounced aroma. Vices to include bread nepromes, tempering, molding. Nepromes representing the lumps of flour in the crumb nepromeshannoy is formed when there is insufficient mixing of flour in the dough. Availability apeptous nepromesa reduces nutritional value of bread. At a low temperature baking can be formed temper. It is most often localized in the lower crust and a dense layer is porous crumbs having a kind of soggy test. When storing the bread in the cramped, poorly ventilated warehouses with large differences in air temperature, moisturizes the surface of the bread, it develops molds.
This bread unfit for human consumption. For prolonged storage stale bread. Staling of bread – this is a complex physical-chemical process, which consists in aging starch colloid, in which some water-related starch, gluten becomes. This process is reversible upon heating. Bread can change their properties under the influence of microorganisms. So, with the defeat of bread spore microorganisms, in particular potato stick (V. mesentericus), potato growing, or "ropy" bread disease. Enzymes potato sticks, breaking down protein and starch bread crumb cause organoleptic changes. As a result, it darkens, it becomes sticky stringy and acquires a specific, unpleasant odor. Potato disease occurs in wheat bread, low in acidity which favors the development of potato sticks. In addition to the low acidity emergence of potato disease contributes to high moisture grain and slow cooling it. Bread, potato disease struck, unfit for human consumption, because it has poor organoleptic properties and can cause disruption of the alimentary canal, vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. To prevent acidification of the potato disease is recommended to test with lactic acid (0.1-0.2%), decreased humidity and rapid cooling of the baked bread. Wheat bread during storage in wet storage facilities with high air temperature can sometimes be covered with bright red mucous patches. Such a change in the external kind of bread is the result of a wonderful life bacillus (B. prodigiosus), which produces a bright red pigment. Low acidity favors this wheat bread. Bread, struck pigmentoobrazuyuschimi bacteria, is not suitable for human consumption. After removal of the affected parts can be used to make bread. Physico-chemical indicators of good quality grain are the humidity, acidity and porosity. The norms of these indicators are provided GOST 21 094 – 75, GOST 5670-51, GOST 5669-51. The increase in moisture content and acidity of bread deteriorates the taste and reduces the nutritional value. Eating bread with high acidity can cause acute diseases of the digestive system. Porosity of bread called a pore volume, enclosed in 100 volume units of crumb. The porosity of the higher grades of wheat bread can reach 75% or more, while with rye bread, it does not exceed 55%. Bread with high humidity and low acidity, and porosity is considered unusual and is not allowed to sell to the public. It can be used for the preparation of crackers, kvass or returns to the processing of lower baking breads – Nutritional Supplements
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